Blue Magnolia Acuminata

Cucumber Tree – A Comprehensive Guide Magnolia Acuminata

Magnolia Acuminata: Nature’s Perfect Combination of Beauty and Fragrance

Cucumber Tree ‘Magnolia acuminata’ is a beautiful addition to any landscape, but growing and maintaining this plant can be challenging. Many factors must be considered, from choosing the right cultivar to harvesting its fruits and managing common pests and issues. This article will explore the history and cultivation of the Cucumber Tree ‘Magnolia acuminata’, including tips on pruning and maintenance, propagation, transplanting, and managing common pests and issues. Read on to learn more about this stunning tree!


Genus name: Magnolia acuminata

Common name: Cucumber Tree

Plant type: Deciduous tree

Height: Can grow up to 80 feet

Propagation methods: Propagation through seed, cutting, and grafting

Water requirement: Relatively high water requirement

Maintenance: Requires regular pruning

Tolerance: Tolerate a wide range of soil textures, from sandy to clay soils, but prefer soils rich in organic matter.

Light: Requires full sun to partial shade and prefers a location with plenty of direct sunlight

Cultivation and History Cucumber Tree

Its scientific name is Magnolia acuminate, and it is native to the Eastern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. It is a deciduous tree that produces showy, slightly fragrant, tulip-like flowers in late spring. Unlike most Magnolias, it can grow in full sun and partial shade, reaching 60-80 feet with a pyramidal crown and a straight trunk. 

Magnolia acuminata -cucumber tree

The tree is found in well-drained soil and can tolerate loam, making it suitable for large properties and golf courses. Its foliage is green and ovate, with a fall color ranging from yellow-green to greenish-yellow. In late summer, its cone-like fruits mature into cucumber-like fruits eaten by several birds and small mammals.

The cucumber-shaped fruit is an inch-long aggregate follicle, with the unripe fruit eaten by several species of birds and small mammals. The fruit is slightly fragrant, and grackles and blackbirds eat its flesh. The tree is found scattered in Southern Ontario and is native to Eastern North America.

In 1736, John Clayton described the cucumber tree as a tall, slender pyramidal crown with a straight trunk. The tree is often browsed by animals and has been found on large properties, such as golf courses. The tree’s hybrid cultivars are also popular and grown for their foliage, flower, and growth rate. The tree’s mature size and growth rate make it popular for landscaping and even small gardens.

Pruning and Maintenance of Magnolia acuminata

The tree is easy to maintain and has a growth rate of 2-4 feet per year, making it a popular choice for arboretums and gardens. Mature trees have a trunk diameter of 4–10 inches and warty, knobby, and furrowed bark. The heartwood is reddish-orange, while the sapwood is yellowish. The hardy tree can survive in Zone 4, far north for a magnolia species.

Pruning is crucial to cucumber tree maintenance because it helps promote healthy growth, maintain shape, and prevent disease. Removing dead or diseased branches helps prevent the spread of harmful pathogens and ensures the tree grows strong and healthy.

The best time to prune a cucumber tree is during the winter months when the tree is dormant. This is the ideal time because it lets you see the tree’s structure clearly and make precise cuts without damaging new growth.

Removing dead, diseased, or damaged branches are important when pruning a cucumber tree. You can then shape the tree by removing any crossing or rubbing branches and branches growing in the wrong direction. It’s essential to make clean cuts with a sharp pruning saw or shears and to avoid leaving any stubs, as these can lead to disease and decay.

Cucumber Tree

Cucumbertree Cultivar to Select 

Let’s talk about cucumber tree cultivars and how to select the best ones for your garden. If you’re an avid gardener, you know that not all plants are created equal. Knowing which is right for you can be challenging with many different cultivars. However, a few cultivars stand out above the rest regarding cucumber trees.

The Butterflies cultivar is one of the most popular cucumber tree cultivars. This cultivar is known for its striking yellow flowers that bloom in early spring with a sweet fragrance that attracts bees and other pollinators. Additionally, the ‘Butterflies cultivar is known for its hardiness and disease resistance, making it an ideal choice for beginner gardeners.

Magnolia Acuminata Flowering tree

Another outstanding cucumber tree cultivar is the ‘Elizabeth’ cultivar, known for its large, fragrant flowers that bloom in late spring or early summer. The flowers are a beautiful shade of creamy white and can be up to 8 inches in diameter. The ‘Elizabeth’ cultivar is also known for its vigorous growth, making it an excellent choice for gardeners who want a fast-growing tree that will provide shade in their yard.

Suppose you’re looking for a cucumber tree cultivar perfect for smaller yards or urban gardens. In that case, the ‘Yellow Bird’ cultivar might be right for you. This cultivar is a compact version of the cucumber tree and grows about 20 feet tall. It is known for its beautiful yellow flowers that bloom in early spring, and its compact size makes it an ideal choice for gardens with limited space.

Cucumber Tree Closeup

Lastly, let’s talk about the ‘Fertile Myrtle’ cultivar. This cultivar is known for its ability to produce an abundance of fruit, making it an excellent choice for gardeners who want to harvest their cucumbers. The fruit of the ‘Fertile Myrtle’ cultivar is small and green, just like a cucumber, and is edible. Additionally, the ‘Fertile Myrtle’ cultivar is known for its hardiness and ability to grow in various soil types, making it a great choice for gardeners who live in areas with less-than-ideal soil conditions.

Propagation of Cucumber Tree ‘Magnolia acuminata.’

Growing your cucumber tree can be a lot of fun and super rewarding. And the best part? You have a few different methods to choose from when propagating this beautiful tree!

First up, we have seed propagation. In the fall, you’ll want to collect some seeds from ripe cucumber tree fruits. Once you have your seeds, remove the fleshy coating and soak them in warm water for a day. Then, you can plant them in well-draining soil and keep them somewhere warm and humid. Remember, germination can take up to six months, and you’ll need to transplant the seedlings when they’re big enough.

Let’s discuss a technique called cuttings, which is useful for fast-growing trees during spring or early summer. First, locate a healthy branch, and cut a six-inch stem beneath a node. Then, remove leaves from the lower half of the stem, dip the cut end into rooting hormone, and plant it in well-drained soil. Keep the cutting warm and humid; after a few weeks, it should grow roots. Once the roots are established, transfer the cutting to a larger pot or outdoors.

Magnolia acuminata Leaves

Finally, there’s grafting. This is the most advanced propagation method, and professional growers often use it. With this method, you join a cutting from the cucumber tree onto the rootstock of a different tree. It takes some knowledge and skill, but if you’re up for the challenge, go for it!

No matter which method you choose, remember to be patient and attentive throughout the process. You can grow your beautiful cucumber tree with some care and attention, giving you years of joy and medicinal benefits.


The Cucumber Tree has specific light requirements. It needs full to partial sun exposure and thrives in locations with direct sunlight. So, when planning to plant a Cucumber Tree in your garden, select a sunny spot with ample sunlight.

Soil & Fertility

Cucumber trees prefer moist, well-drained soils that are slightly acidic to neutral (pH 5.5-7.0). They can tolerate various soil textures, from sandy to clay soils, but prefer soils rich in organic matter. This is because cucumber trees have shallow, fibrous root systems that benefit from organic matter, which can help improve soil structure, water-holding capacity, and nutrient availability.

Cucumber trees have moderate fertility requirements and can benefit from regular balanced fertilizer applications. It’s important not to over-fertilize cucumber trees, as this can lead to excessive vegetative growth at the expense of fruiting.

To maintain optimal fertility, it’s a good idea to test the soil every few years to determine nutrient levels and pH. If the soil is deficient in essential nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium, or if the pH is outside the desired range, it may be necessary to amend the soil with the appropriate fertilizer or soil amendment.

Magnolia acuminata leaves Closeup


It’s worth noting that cucumber trees are native to moist and well-drained soils, which means they have a relatively high water requirement. They grow in areas with an average annual rainfall of around 40 inches in their natural habitat.

One way to ensure the soil stays moist is to water the tree deeply once a week during the growing season (spring through fall) and less frequently during the dormant season (winter). However, the exact watering frequency will depend on various factors such as climate, soil type, and tree age.


Cucumber trees are hardy in USDA zones 4 through 8, so they can tolerate various temperatures. However, they prefer a cool to moderate climate, with average temperatures ranging from 60 to 80 degrees Fahrenheit. They can survive in temperatures as low as -30 degrees Fahrenheit, but extreme cold can damage the tree.

During the growing season, cucumber trees require consistent moisture to thrive. In hot, dry weather, they may need additional watering to prevent the leaves from wilting. The trees also benefit from regular fertilization with a balanced fertilizer.


Cucumber trees prefer moderate to high humidity, meaning they need a fair amount of moisture in the air to thrive. Living in a dry climate can be challenging, but there are several ways to increase humidity around your cucumber tree.

cucumber tree Greening

One of the easiest ways to increase humidity is to mist the leaves of your cucumber tree with a spray bottle of water. This can be done once or twice a day, especially during dry seasons. You can also place a humidifier near your cucumber tree to add moisture. If you don’t have a humidifier, place a tray of water near your tree or use a pebble tray. The evaporation from the water will increase the humidity around your tree.

Another way to maintain humidity around your cucumber tree is to mulch the soil around it. Mulch helps retain moisture in the soil, creating a more humid microclimate around the tree. You can use various organic materials for mulching, such as bark, leaves, or compost.


The best time to harvest cucumber tree fruits is when they are fully ripe. Depending on your location, this is usually in late summer or early fall. The fruits will be green at first but gradually turn reddish-brown as they ripen. You’ll know they’re ready to harvest when they start to split open and reveal their bright red seeds.

To harvest cucumber tree fruits, you’ll need a few supplies. These include a pair of gloves, a basket or bucket, and a ladder (if your tree is tall). The gloves will protect your hands from the tree’s rough bark and any thorns or prickles that may be present. The basket or bucket will be used to collect the fruits, and the ladder will help you reach any fruits that are out of reach.

Magnolia Acuminata Closeup

When harvesting cucumber tree fruits, it’s important to be gentle. The delicate fruits can easily bruise or break if handled too roughly. Use a light touch when picking the fruits, and avoid pulling or twisting them off the tree. Instead, gently lift them up and away from the branch.


Transplanting a cucumber tree can be challenging, but it can be a rewarding experience with the right approach. Whether moving an established tree or starting with a young sapling, proper preparation and care are essential to ensure its successful transplantation.

The first step in transplanting a cucumber tree is to choose the right location. The tree needs a sunny spot with well-draining soil rich in organic matter. Make sure the location is large enough to accommodate the tree’s mature size, which can be up to 60 feet tall and 30 feet wide.

First, choose a good spot for your tree. Then, dig a hole twice as wide as the root ball but not as deep. Mix compost or manure into the soil to give the tree nutrients.

Magnolia acuminata

To move the tree, be gentle and avoid hurting the roots. If the tree is big, it’s better to get help from professionals. When the tree is out of the ground, wrap the roots in moist burlap or similar material to keep them from drying out.

Transport the tree quickly to its new location and place it in the hole. The top of the root ball has to level with the surrounding soil. Fill the hole with the enriched soil mixture, firmly patting it down to remove air pockets.

Water the tree thoroughly immediately after transplanting and continue to water it regularly for the first few weeks to help it establish itself in its new location. Avoid fertilizing the tree for at least a year, as this can stress the newly transplanted tree.

Managing common Pests & Issues

Cucumber trees are a beautiful addition to any landscape, but like any plant, they can face their fair share of pests and issues. 

Magnolia Acuminata Blooming

Cucumber Beetle: Cucumber beetles are a common pest that can cause significant damage to cucumber trees. These beetles feed on the foliage and can cause defoliation, which weakens the tree over time. To manage cucumber beetles, you can use insecticidal sprays or dust. Alternatively, you can try companion planting by planting cucumber trees with plants that naturally repel cucumber beetles, such as marigolds and radishes.

Anthracnose: Anthracnose is another fungal disease that can impact cucumber trees. It causes black spots on the leaves and can spread quickly if left untreated. To manage anthracnose, prune affected branches and dispose of them immediately. You can also use fungicidal sprays or a homemade neem oil and water solution to treat the tree.

Scale Insects: Scale insects are small, sap-sucking insects that can cause significant damage to cucumber trees. They can be difficult to spot as they blend well with the tree’s bark. To manage scale insects, you can use insecticidal sprays or introduce natural predators such as ladybugs and lacewings to the area.

Root Rot: Cucumber trees can suffer from root rot, especially in soil that doesn’t drain well. Root rot can kill the tree by causing the roots to rot. To prevent this, plant the tree in well-draining soil and don’t overwater it. If you see signs of root rot, cut off the damaged roots and use a fungicidal solution to treat the soil.

By proactively managing these common pests and issues, you can ensure that your cucumber tree remains healthy and beautiful for years.

Best uses

Cucumber trees are popular as ornamental trees due to their beautiful foliage, unique bark, and attractive flowers. They can add much visual appeal to any landscape as a focal point or as part of a larger planting scheme.

Cucumber trees are an excellent choice for shade trees because of their height. They can grow up to 50 feet tall, perfect for protecting you from the harsh sun during the hot summer. This helps keep you cool and reduces your energy bills by minimizing direct sunlight entering your home.

Magnolia Acuminata Branch

Moreover, cucumber trees have strong and durable wood often used for making furniture, flooring, and other wood products. This wood is also resistant to rot and decay, making it an excellent choice for outdoor structures like decks and fences. Besides, cucumber trees offer an excellent food source and shelter for many wildlife species, such as birds, squirrels, and other small mammals. Therefore, they are ideal for creating wildlife habitats.

Finally, cucumber trees have been used for centuries for their medicinal properties. The bark and leaves of the tree contain compounds that have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antibacterial properties, which can be used to treat various ailments.


The cucumber tree is a beautiful and valuable addition to any landscape. Proper pruning, maintenance, and care are essential for its growth and development. When harvesting its fruits, it is important to be gentle and avoid competition with wildlife. When transplanting, choose a sunny spot with well-draining soil and enrich it with compost or aged manure. Manage common pests and issues by using insecticidal sprays or introducing natural predators. By following these guidelines, you can enjoy the beauty and benefits of this magnificent tree for years to come.

Frequently asked questions (FAQ’s)

Are cucumber trees hard to grow?

Cucumber trees are easy to grow with minimal care required, but they do need regular maintenance. They can tolerate different soil types but prefer well-draining soil with organic matter like compost or aged manure. Additionally, they require full sunlight and ample water, especially in the growing season.

How long does it take for a cucumber tree to produce fruit?

Some cucumber varieties can be harvested as early as 35 days after planting. Others take more than 55 days to reach maturity.

How many times can you harvest cucumbers?

Cucumbers grow quickly; you can harvest one every few days for most of the summer. Watch out for misshapen or damaged fruits when picking them; this will help ensure the plants continue producing throughout the season.

What is the best fertilizer for cucumber?

Cucumbers need moderate nitrogen, high phosphorus, and moderate potassium levels. An organic plant food with those qualities (3-4-6) is ideal for growing cucumbers.

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