Black-Eyed Pea Care: Tips for Grow Healthy & Productive Plants

Cowpeas in a glasshouse

Black-Eyed Pea Care: A Complete Guide for Beginners

Black-Eyed Pea Plants are legumes that belong to the Fabaceae family; they are also known as cowpeas, Texas peas, and field peas. They are predominantly grown in the Southern United States, Central America, and Africa.

They are used mainly for human consumption and can be used in a variety of food dishes, such as soups and stews but can also be used to feed livestock. This plant thrives in hot, dry climates and they do provide excellent source of protein.

Black Eyed Pea Plants History

The black-eyed pea plant is one of the most important legumes in the world. It is consumed by more than 150 million people worldwide and yields a crop that many rely on for their livelihoods. It was first domesticated in West Africa, and its history can be traced back to the ancient Egyptians who cultivated it as a food source.

Black-eyed peas

Cultivation of this legume spread from Africa to Asia, Central America, and Europe, becoming an essential part of local diets.

They are also called cowpeas and are known to be a good source of protein. They have been cultivated in the Southern United States for many years. Black-eyed peas have been found in archaeological sites dating back to 1000 BC. They have also been used in Africa and parts of the Caribbean for thousands of years.

Plant Characteristics.

Black-eyed Peas are a perennial herb that grows in a vine-like fashion. Its leaves are oval-shaped and green. It grows yellow or purple flowers depending on the variety. The flowers are attractive and are used to attract pollinators such as bees.

Habitat and Range.

Let’s discuss the habitat and range of the Black-eyed Pea Plant. The Black-eyed Pea Plant grows in many different soil types, from dry, sandy areas to clay soil. It also grows in areas with a lot of moisture but not enough water to grow extensive vegetation. It grows in areas with a lot of sunlight and can grow in hot, dry climates. It can also grow in the shade.

Plant Care and Maintenance

Black-eyed peas are one of the most popular vegetables; they are a type of legume that is grown for their edible seeds, they are an excellent source of protein, fiber, folate, vitamin B1, and potassium. If you want to plant black-eyed peas in your garden, make sure that the soil is well-drained and has a pH level between 6 and 7.5. The soil should also be nutrient-rich with plenty of organic matter, such as compost or manure, before planting the seeds or seedlings.

The Black-eyed Pea Plant can be grown in a pot or planted directly into the ground in a vegetable garden. It can be grown in areas with lots of sunlight, but not an excessive amount, and it can also be grown in areas with shade. The Black-eyed Pea Plant can be grown in areas with little water.

It is drought-resistant and can withstand temperatures that can reach up to 100 degrees Fahrenheit and in some cases also survive being exposed to extreme temperatures. This plant grows best in well-drained soil and requires a lot of sunlight. Therefore, it is best to water the plant regularly and allow the soil to dry out before watering again. 

Growing guide to plant Black Eyed Pea at Home

Black-eyed peas are a legume that can easily be grown at home. They are a cool-season crop that grows well in the spring and fall. This plant is not limited to just one variety, so you can plant either the annual or perennial variety, depending on what you want to do with it. The seeds must be soaked overnight before planting in a container or pot and then planted at a depth of 1 inch your home environment.

The soil should be well-drained and watered regularly throughout the growing season and also ensure that your plant is provided with adequate sunlight by placing it next or on a windowsill for maximum exposure to sunlight. 

How to grow from Dried Beans or Seeds

The dried black-eyed peas plants grow best in warm and humid climates; hence they grow better in the southern region of America or warmer areas of the world.

Black Eyed Peas - Seeds

There are many ways to grow black-eyed peas from dried beans, but here are some of the most popular ones:

  1. Soak the dried beans overnight and then plant them during the spring or summer.
  2. Plant them directly into a garden bed with good soil that has been prepared for planting.
  3. Plant them directly into a container filled with potting soil and water them daily or as needed. 

How to grow Black Eyed peas in containers.

Black-eyed peas can be grown in containers or directly in the ground. When planting black-eyed pea plants, make sure to plant them at least 6 inches apart for optimal growth and harvest. They are a good choice for container gardening because they grow well in confined areas and are drought-tolerate. To grow black-eyed peas successfully, you will need to provide the plant with adequate sunlight and water.

The first thing to do is choose a container that can hold at least two gallons of soil. The best type of pot for black-eyed peas is one with drainage holes. Next, fill the container with potting soil, ensuring drainage holes in the bottom of the pot so water can quickly drain out.

Next, plant your seeds or seedlings into the soil, ensuring they have enough room to avoid getting crowded or smothered by other plants around them. Finally, keep your plants well-watered and fertilized throughout their life cycle to ensure they stay healthy and produce a lot of peas!

Black Eyed Peas companion plants

These legumes are grown as companion plants in lots of gardens; the idea behind companion planting is for your plant to benefit from each other’s closeness. The black-eyed peas companion plants can attract pollinators, provide nitrogen for the soil, and help control pests and weeds. For example, it is common for black-eyed pea plants to be planted with corn or soybeans to provide the corn or soybean with nitrogen from their roots.

Vigna unguiculata subsp. cylindrica

Also, companion plants are vital for the black-eyed peas plants as they can be used as a natural fertilizer for your plant. These plants also provide shade to the black-eyed peas, and they can be used to protect them from insects and other pests that may attack their leaves.

The following are some of the black-eyed pea plant companion plants:

  • Basil: Basil is a good companion plant for beans because it has a strong scent that repels insects and pests. It also has antibacterial properties, which will prevent any bacteria from spreading on your beans.
  • Dill: Dill is another good companion plant for beans because it has a strong smell. It also repels aphids, cabbage worms, and cabbage.

Black Eyed Pea Common Pests & Diseases

Black-eyed peas plants are relatively pest-free and disease-free. Some insects may attack your black-eyed peas, but they are usually easily controlled. Some of the common pests and diseases that you may encounter include:

  • Aphids: Aphids are a common problem for black-eyed peas because they suck the sap from the plant and damage the pods. Types of aphids: Black and Green. Black aphids have a distinct body shape and are black or brown. Likewise, Green aphids have a distinct body shape with a green coloration. You can protect your plants from aphids by spraying them with water and then using a soft brush to remove the aphids from the plant. You can also use insecticidal soap or horticultural oil to control the aphids.
  • Black spot: Blackspot is a disease that can attack your black-eyed peas plants. A fungus causes it, and it usually appears as small black spots on the leaves.
  • Cabbage worms are also a common pest for black-eyed peas because they can eat the leaves and the pods.
  • Bean beetles: Bean beetles are small, black beetles usually found on the undersides of the leaves of your black-eyed pea plants. They are usually found in the evening, and they can cause damage to your plants if they are not controlled. You can protect your plants from bean beetles by planting them in raised beds and keeping your plants well-watered and fertilized.


The black-eyed pea plant is a versatile and nutritious crop that can be grown in a wide range of conditions. It can be used as a grain crop, legume crop, and cover crop. The plant can be used as a cover crop to suppress weeds, reduce soil erosion, prevent soil from becoming compacted, and improve soil fertility.

Cowpea flower
Cowpea flower

In addition, the black-eyed pea plant can be used as a food crop and forage crop. It is a good companion plant for other legumes, and it is a good cover crop for other crops. The black-eyed pea plant is a good protein, fiber, and minerals source. It is also a good source of vitamins and minerals.


What are the Benefits and Drawbacks of Black-Eyed Pea Planting?

The black-eyed pea plant has many benefits. It is a nitrogen-fixing legume, which means it can convert nitrogen from the air into a form that plants need to grow. This process improves soil fertility and reduces synthetic fertilizers, which is good for organic farmers. It also fixes atmospheric carbon dioxide and converts it into biomass, which helps mitigate climate change.

The black-eyed pea plant is also a perennial crop, so it has less impact on soil fertility than annual crops like corn or soybeans. The main drawback of the black-eyed pea plant is that it doesn’t grow well in cold climates.

Do black Eyed peas need a trellis?

Although this may be true, it is unnecessary; the Black-eyed Pea Plant is a vine that grows on its own, and you will need to train it to grow in a specific direction. For example, if you have a trellis, you can still grow black-eyed peas on it, but you may need to tie the vines to the trellis. on the other hand, you can grow it in a pot however, you will need to train the plant to grow in a specific direction.

If you are planting in a pot, ensure that the pot is at least 2 to 3 inches deep. Soil used in cultivating your plant should be well-drained and has a pH level between 6 and 7.5. It should also be nutrient-rich, with plenty of organic matter added before planting the seeds or seedlings. 

What month do you plant black-eyed peas?

Whereas black-eye peas are a cool-season crop, they can be planted anytime between spring and the beginning of fall. You can plant black-eyed peas in the spring or the fall, but it is best to plant them in the fall, nearing the new year’s day; in addition, plant them in areas that receive lots of sunlight and in areas that do not receive a lot of rainfall. 

How tall do Black Eyed Pea plants get?

The average height for black-eyed peas is around 3 feet, but this can vary depending on the soil quality and climate. Black-eyed peas are a type of legume that is popular for their ability to grow well in various climates. This plant growsbest when it has at least 6 hours of sunlight per day and plenty of water (about 1 inch per week). 

Are black Eyed Peas Easy to Grow?

The black-eyed pea plant is most commonly grown in warm climates but can also be grown in colder climates using greenhouses. They are easy to grow and require very little maintenance, making them an ideal crop for novice gardeners. Black-eyed peas are a good crop for beginner gardeners because they don’t require much maintenance, have high nutritional value, and are not too expensive.

The black-eyed pea plant will produce pods if it is pollinated by another variety of species or by another type of the same genus. They will also self-pollinate, but the pods will contain fewer seeds and may not be as large as those produced from cross-pollination. One of the most important things to consider when growing black-eyed peas is the climate. They can tolerate a wide range of climates, but they do best in warm to hot climates with full sun.

The seeds should be planted directly into the soil and watered every day until they sprout, which usually takes about three days. Once they have sprouted, it is essential to stop watering them because they will rot in wet soil.

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