African Milk Bush

African Milk Bush – The Ultimate Guide to Care & Maintenance

African Milk Bush (Euphorbia Bicompacta): Complete Plant Care & Growing Guide

The African Milk Bush is an intriguing succulent plant that captures attention with its unique appearance and low maintenance requirements.

Here, we will explore the cultivation, history, pruning and maintenance, propagation methods, light, and soil requirements, water and temperature considerations, growing tips, pest management, and the best uses of the African Milk Bush.


Common name: African Milk Bush

Origin: Arid regions of Africa Plant type: Perennial succulent

Height: Up to 2 meters (6.5 feet)

Propagation methods: Stem cuttings

Water requirement: Low; allow the soil to dry out between waterings

Maintenance: Pruning to maintain shape and remove dead branches

Tolerance: Drought-tolerant, can withstand a range of temperatures

Light: Full sun

Scientific Name
Euphorbia Bicompacta

Scientific classification
Family: Euphorbiaceae

Cultivation and History of African Milk Bush

The African Milk Bush, also known as Euphorbia bicompacta, is native to the arid regions of Africa. Its thick cylindrical stem adorned with ridges and pairs of spines resembles a baseball bat, earning it the nickname “Baseball Plant.” This perennial succulent belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family. It has a rich history in African cultures, where it has been used for medicinal and spiritual purposes.

Euphorbia bicompacta is just one of the many remarkable plants you can explore in the world of succulents. With over 5,000 plants available, including rare varieties like Euphorbia bicompacta var. rubrafolia and Synadenium grantii, you can embark on a captivating journey of discovery and educational information. 

Pruning and Maintenance

Pruning and maintenance are crucial aspects of caring for the African Milk Bush to ensure its health, shape, and overall appearance. Here, we will delve into more details about pruning and maintenance practices for this unique succulent.

Importance of Pruning

Pruning plays a significant role in shaping and controlling the growth of the African Milk Bush. It helps maintain a compact and aesthetically pleasing form, preventing the plant from becoming leggy or sparse. Pruning also allows for the removal of dead or diseased branches, promoting better overall plant health.

Tools and Safety Precautions

When pruning the African Milk Bush, it is essential to use clean and sharp pruning shears. Dirty or dull tools can introduce pathogens to the plant, increasing the risk of infections. Additionally, wearing gloves and protective clothing is crucial to avoid direct contact with the plant’s latex sap, which can cause skin irritation in some individuals.

Pruning Techniques

When pruning the African Milk Bush, follow these techniques for effective maintenance:

a. Removing Dead or Damaged Branches: Regularly inspect and remove dead or damaged plant branches with a clean cut at their point of origin for optimal health.

b. Controlling Growth: Pruning can be used to control the size and shape of the African Milk Bush. Trim back branches growing too long or straying in undesired directions to maintain a compact and tidy appearance.

c. Encouraging Bushier Growth: To promote bushier growth and a denser plant, pinch or trim the tips of new growth. This stimulates branching and encourages the plant to fill out, resulting in a fuller and more attractive specimen.

Timing of Pruning

The best time to prune the African Milk Bush is during its active growing season, typically in spring or summer. Avoid pruning during the dormant period, as it may hinder the plant’s ability to recover and regrow.

African milk bush

Maintenance Practices

Besides pruning, the African Milk Bush requires a few additional maintenance practices to ensure its well-being:

a. Cleaning and Dusting: The succulent leaves can accumulate dust over time, hindering their ability to photosynthesize effectively. Use a soft brush or damp cloth to gently clean the leaves and remove any dust buildup.

b. Monitoring for Pests and Diseases: Regularly inspect the plant for signs of pests such as mealybugs, scale insects, or spider mites. If infestations are detected, take immediate action using appropriate organic pest control methods or insecticidal soaps. Additionally, watch for any signs of diseases such as fungal infections or rot and address them promptly.

c. Watering and Drainage: For a healthy African Milk Bush, water it properly by letting the soil dry out between waterings and ensuring proper drainage. Regularly prune and maintain using the right tools and safety measures.

Cultivating Green African Milk Bush and Varieties

The green African Milk Bush called the variety Euphorbia bicompacta var. rubrafolia, is highly sought after for its unique foliage. With its vibrant and eye-catching green leaves, this variety adds a striking element to any garden or indoor space.

African Milk Bush

Propagation Techniques for Euphorbia bicompacta var.rubrafolia

To propagate Euphorbia bicompacta var. rubrafolia, it is recommended to employ the same techniques as those used for the standard variety. In particular, stem cuttings are known to work quite well for this type. It is essential to take the cuttings with great care, using a sharp knife, and to allow them to dry out properly before planting them in well-drained soil. 

Synadenium Grantii: A Companion to Euphorbia bicompacta

Synadenium grantii, also known as the African Milk Bush or Rubra, is a closely related plant to Euphorbia bicompacta. It shares similar characteristics and care requirements, making it an excellent companion plant in your garden. The dark green leaves and colorful stems of Synadenium grantii bring an added dimension to any tropical landscape.

Euphorbia umbellata: An Exquisite Succulent

Another great succulent to consider is Euphorbia umbellata. With its charming growth habit and attractive flowers, this plant adds a touch of elegance to any garden or indoor setting. Its easy-care nature and tolerance to various climates make it popular among succulent enthusiasts.

Synadenium Compactum: A Compact Beauty

Synadenium compactum, commonly known as the Compact African Milk Bush, is a smaller variety of the African Milk Bush. It’s compact size and dense foliage make it perfect for those seeking a shrub-like appearance. Its fleshy leaves and thick stems make it an ideal choice for indoor and outdoor gardens.

Propagate Euphorbia bicompacta

One of the fascinating aspects of Euphorbia bicompacta is its ability to propagate quickly. You can propagate these plants through stem cuttings. 

Use a sharp knife to cut a stem measuring around 7 inches long, ensuring that it has a few sets of leaves. Dry the cutting for a few days before planting in moist, well-drained soil. Care for it properly to help it develop roots and grow into a new plant.

Once the stem cutting has become established into a healthy root system, it can be treated like a mature African Milk Bush. This includes adjusting the watering frequency to match the plant’s needs, providing sufficient light, and ensuring suitable temperature and humidity levels.

African milk bush

Light requirements

Euphorbia bicompacta plant grows best in full sun, making it an excellent choice for outdoor gardens. It can tolerate a wide range of climates, including those with hot and dry conditions. These hardy plants are also resistant to frost, making them suitable for various USDA zones. 

Soil requirements

To ensure the optimal growth of Euphorbia bicompacta, it is essential to provide well-drained soil. This plant thrives in soil rich in organic matter and offers good drainage. Avoid wet soil, as it can lead to root rot. A mixture of peat and well-draining soil works well for these plants. Remember to keep the soil moist but not overly saturated, as succulents prefer a drier environment.


The African Milk Bush doesn’t require heavy feeding but benefits from occasional fertilization during the growing season. Use organic matter or fertilizer to provide essential nutrients. A general guideline is to apply to the planting hole once every 2-4 weeks during the spring and summer months and reduce or stop fertilization during the dormant period in winter. Overfertilization can lead to excessive growth and weak stems, so it’s essential to follow the instructions on the packaging and use a diluted concentration.

When fertilizing, applying the fertilizer to damp soil is recommended to avoid burning the roots. Water the plant before using the solution and ensure it is evenly distributed throughout the soil. Remember to rinse off any that may have come into contact with the leaves to prevent potential damage.

Monitoring the plant’s growth and adjusting the fertilization frequency accordingly is essential. When it begins to show signs of slow growth or pale leaves, it may benefit from a slightly more frequent fertilization schedule. On the other hand, reducing the frequency or concentration of fertilization may be necessary if the growth is excessive and the stems appear weak.

Watering Requirements

Adequate watering is essential for the health of the African Milk Bush. It is vital to balance providing enough moisture and avoiding soggy conditions that can lead to root rot. The best approach is to water the plant sparingly and avoid water deeply. Reduce the watering frequency during winter or dormant periods as the plant requires less moisture.

Temperature Requirements

The African Milk Bush is a versatile succulent shrub tolerant of various temperatures. However, it prefers to be kept at temperatures of 15°C (59°F). It can thrive in warm to hot climates but may struggle in extremely cold or frost-prone regions.

Protecting the plant from frost is crucial, as exposure to freezing temperatures can cause severe damage or even death. If you stay in a colder climate, it is advisable to grow the African Milk Bush as an indoor plant or provide appropriate protection during frosty periods.

African Milk Bush

Humidity Levels

The African Milk Bush germinates best in low to moderate humidity levels. It is well-suited for arid or semi-arid environments, as it has adapted to survive in dry conditions.

High humidity can be detrimental to the plant, as it increases the risk of fungal diseases and rot. Therefore, it is essential to avoid placing the African Milk Bush in areas with excessive moisture or poor air circulation. 


Transplanting the African Milk Bush is essential to its care and maintenance. It is necessary when the plant outgrows its current container or when you want to refresh the soil to provide fresh nutrients.

Here are some detailed guidelines on how to successfully transplant your African Milk Bush:

Timing: The best time to transplant the African Milk Bush is during the active growing season, typically in spring or early summer. This allows the plant to recover quickly and adjust to its new environment.

Choosing the Right Pot: To ensure your plant has enough space to grow, select a pot slightly larger than its current one. It’s vital that the new pot has drainage holes to avoid waterlogging, which can cause root rot. A terracotta or clay pot is recommended because it promotes better airflow and regulates moisture levels effectively.

Soil Mix: Use a well-draining soil mix specifically formulated for succulents or cacti. These mixes typically consist of potting soil, perlite, and coarse sand. The well-draining soil ensures that excess water drains away from the roots, preventing waterlogged conditions.

Preparing the Plant: Water the African Milk Bush a day or two before transplanting to avoid root damage, as it would aid the ease of removal of the plant from its current container.

Transplanting Process:

  1. Tilt the pot to one side and slide out the plant while holding the base/stem.
  2. Watch out for spines and sap that can irritate the skin.
  3. Loosen tightly bound roots for better growth.

Placing in the New Pot:

  1. Add a layer of fresh well-draining soil mix to the new pot, creating a slight mound in the center.
  2. Place the African Milk Bush in the center of the pot, ensuring that it is positioned on the same level as the previous container.
  3. Adjust the soil beneath the plant if needed.

Backfilling and Settling the Soil:

  1. Carefully fill the remaining space around the roots with the well-draining soil mix, gently pressing it down to eliminate air pockets.
  2. Avoid compacting the soil too tightly, as it may restrict root growth.
  3. Let there be a small gap between the soil surface and the pot’s rim to allow for watering without overflowing.

After Transplant Care: After transplanting, avoid watering the African Milk Bush for a week or so to allow the plant to settle and adjust to its new environment. Resume regular watering once the plant shows signs of new growth or when the soil is dry. Remember to continue providing the plant with appropriate light and temperature conditions.

Transplanting the African Milk Bush provides fresh soil, ample space for growth, and improved drainage, promoting healthier root development and overall plant vitality. With proper handling and care, your transplanted African Milk Bush will continue to thrive and delight you with its unique beauty.

Euphorbia bicompacta (African Milk Bush)

Managing Common Pests & Issues

The African Milk Bush displays substantial resilience against most pests and diseases. However, there are occasional occurrences where notorious succulent pests like scale insects or mealybugs may impact it. It is paramount to conduct regular inspections of the plant and take prompt action upon detection of any indications of infestation to prevent further pest dissemination. Excessive watering should be avoided, as this could result in root decay.

Best Uses

The African Milk Bush is a striking addition to any indoor or outdoor succulents collection. It’s suitable for many applications, including:

Indoor Display: The African Milk Bush is an excellent choice for indoor display due to its compact size and striking appearance. Its unique shape, resembling a baseball bat or candelabra, adds an element of intrigue and conversation to any indoor space. Place it in a well-lit area, such as a windowsill or a bright corner, where it can receive ample indirect sunlight. The African Milk Bush can be displayed as a standalone plant in a decorative pot or incorporated into a succulent arrangement, adding height and structure to the display.

Outdoor Gardens: In outdoor gardens, the African Milk Bush can be used as a focal point or incorporated into rock gardens, succulent beds, or xeriscapes. Its upright growth habit and architectural form make it a standout feature. Plant it in well-draining soil and an area that receives full to partial sunlight, depending on the climate. Grouping multiple African Milk Bush plants can create an eye-catching cluster, providing visual interest and texture to the garden.

Container Gardening: The African Milk Bush is ideal for container gardening due to its manageable size and low maintenance requirements. Select a container with drainage holes and use a well-draining succulent potting mix.

Xeriscaping: The African Milk Bush is ideal for xeriscaping due to its ability to withstand drought and arid conditions. It’s a fantastic water-saving garden option and adds visual interest to the landscape.

Synadenium_grantii (African Milk Bush)


Euphorbia bicompacta are self-sufficient and relatively easy to care for, making them suitable for indoor and outdoor gardens. This succulent thrives in well-drained soil and requires minimal water. It can tolerate drought conditions and is known for its hardy nature. Whether you grow it in a container or directly in the garden, They will add a touch of tropical beauty to your landscape.

If you want to buy unusual flowers or expand your plant collection, consider exploring the online store of tropical exotics. These plants can bring a touch of the extraordinary to your garden, captivating visitors with their vibrant blooms and exquisite foliage. Transform your outdoor or indoor space into a tropical oasis with these fascinating specimens.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ’s)

Can I grow an African Milk Bush indoors?

The African Milk Bush is a viable indoor plant option that requires adequate care and attention to thrive. Optimal growth is achieved in areas with bright, indirect lighting, making it advisable to place the plant near windows that receive a minimum of 6-8 hours of sunlight daily. 

How do I propagate an African Milk Bush?

Propagate African Milk Bush by stem cuttings. Choose a healthy stem, let it dry, then plant it in well-draining soil. Keep it moist until roots grow, then care for it like a mature plant.

How should I prune and maintain my African Milk Bush?

Regular pruning with sharp shears helps keep your African Milk Bush healthy and bushy. Remember that wearing gloves and protective clothing is vital to avoid skin irritation from the latex sap.

Is African Milk Bush poisonous?

Milk bush is considered to be a very toxic plant so ensure that you thoroughly wash your hands when you handle this plant and before eating.

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